How Citizen Scientists Rescued Crucial World War II Weather Data Science




Different types of microscopes differ in their magnification and resolution. More complex compound microscopes may not produce an inverted image because they include an additional lens that “re-inverts” the image back to its normal state.

In reply to Lord Kelvin’s attacks, the geologists used two principal lines of reasoning. One referred to the depth of the sediments and the time they would have taken to accumulate; the other referred to the salinity of the oceans, compared with the rate at which rivers are supplying them with sodium salts. In hindsight, both theories were deeply misguided, for similar reasons.


Among the many questions that Nader is now pursuing is whether all memories become vulnerable when recalled, or only certain memories under certain circumstances. Later the researchers asked all the students what they had seen—a stop sign or yield sign? Students who’d been asked a misleading question were more likely to give an incorrect answer than the other students. In the following days, Nader recalls, he passed through subway stations where walls were covered with notes and photographs left by people searching desperately for missing loved ones. He has a Bachelor of Arts in Biochemistry from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. in Molecular and Cell Biology from the University of California, Berkeley. When physically separated from his keyboard, he tends to seek out a bicycle, or a scenic location for communing with his hiking boots.

If two bacterial cells were very close together on a slide, they might look like a single, blurry dot on a microscope with low resolving power, but could be told apart as separate on a microscope with high resolving power. This picture isn’t a plain light micrograph; it’s a fluorescent image of a specially prepared plant where various parts of the cell were labeled with tags to make them glow. However, this kind of cellular complexity and beauty is all around us, whether we can see it or not. Confocal microscopy image of a young leaf of thale cress, with one marker outlining the cells and other markers indicating young cells of the stomatal lineage .

Botany, also called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Nowadays, botanists study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants , and approximately 20,000 are bryophytes. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular , multicellular , or acellular . Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology and parasitology. In this context the word systems is used to refer specifically to self-regulating systems, i.e. that are self-correcting through feedback. Self-regulating systems are found in nature, including the physiological systems of our body, in local and global ecosystems, and climate.

In the days following September 11, for example, people likely repeatedly rehashed their own personal stories—“where were you when you heard the news? ”—in conversations with friends and family, perhaps allowing details of other people’s stories to mix with their own. According to this view, the brain’s memory system works something like a pen and notebook. For a brief time before the ink dries, it’s possible to smudge what’s written. Sure, memories may fade over the years like an old letter (or even go up in flames if Alzheimer’s disease strikes), but under ordinary circumstances the content of the memory stays the same, no matter how many times it’s taken out and read. The data used by Pew comes from a survey of nearly 9,000 participants, which provides a margin of error of just ±1.6 percentage points. For some of the individual questions, Pew has been gathering data since at least 2016, allowing it to spot trends in the public’s views.

JWST spotted a new speedy jet stream in Jupiter’s atmosphere

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A new poll examines how the US public views science and scientists.

A major government assessment lays out both the far-reaching perils of global warming and the cost-effective fixes that are available today. In one of Yellowstone National Park’s most well-known attractions, researchers discovered an extraordinary diversity of microbial life. A simulation suggests that fine particles played a stronger role in cooling the planet and stalling photosynthesis after an asteroid impacted the Earth. The chance finding in a Japanese university’s greenhouse could help researchers find ways to control agricultural pests or even insects that spread disease. In the Cyclops Mountains in the Indonesian part of the island of New Guinea, Oxford scientists and local guides made a series of spectacular discoveries. A new study suggests that explosive events in space have the potential to temporarily switch off the natural shield that protects us from harmful solar radiation. Repeated bits of the disease-causing gene pile up in some brain cells.